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国际北冰洋地质、地球物理大洋科考进展

【标题】国际北冰洋地质、地球物理大洋科考进展

【Title】Progress of geological and geophysical scientific investigations of Arctic Ocean

【作者】 张华添 1 , 李江海 1 , 王洛 2 , 刘仲兰 1

【Author】 Zhang Huatian 1 , Li Jianghai 1 , Wang Luo 2 , Liu Zhonglan 1

【期刊】极地研究

【Journal】

【期刊年份】2017

【卷】Vol. 29

【期】

【关键词】 北冰洋; 科学考察; 地质与地球物理; 调查手段

【Keywords】 Arctic Ocean; scientific expedition; geology and geophysics; investigation methods

【摘要】受常年海冰限制, 北冰洋科学考察程度远低于其他大洋。系统的北冰洋科学调查始于20世纪90年代, 得益于科考破冰船、潜艇等新型调查设备和手段的使用, 科研人员可以主动选择研究目标和对象, 并成功开展了多次地质与地球物理科学考察, 包括海冰科学探索项目(SCICEX)、北极洋中脊考察航次(AMORE 2001)、加科尔洋中脊热液硫化物考察(AGAVE)、北极钻探航次(IODP 302)等。回顾了北冰洋地质与地球物理科学考察进展, 归纳了主要科学问题: 北冰洋主要地质单元大地构造属性及演化、超慢速扩张洋中脊构造与成矿特征、北冰洋新生代古海洋演化。北冰洋地质与地球物理科学考察进展表明: (1)调查手段是制约北冰洋科考水平的关键因素; (2)破冰船与常规探测手段结合是北冰洋科考的重要发展趋势; (3)近底探测手段有助于解决北冰洋主要地质科学问题。

【Abstract】Perennial coverage of sea ice has meant that the Arctic Ocean is much less well explored than other oceans. Systematic Arctic Ocean exploration began during the 1990s, and the commissioning of new investigative equipment and methods such as icebreakers and submarines has meant that researchers have been able to select research targets. This has led to the success of several geological and geophysical scientific investigation of the Arctic Ocean, including the Scientific Ice Expeditions, Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition, Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition, and IODP 302. This paper reviews several important systematic geological and geophysical expeditions of the Arctic Ocean, and it summarizes the leading scientific problems, i.e., the properties and evolution of major Arctic tectonic units, structural and metallogenetic characteristics of an ultraslow spreading ridge, and Cenozoic evolution of the paleo-Arctic Ocean. Based on our review, three primary conclusions were drawn: (1) investigation methods are the key element constraining the development of Arctic Ocean exploration, (2) icebreakers combined with regular investigating methods constitute the major trend of development in Arctic Ocean exploration, (3) near-bottom investigation helps solve the geological problems of the Arctic Ocean.

【基金/项目】 国家海洋局国际合作司(港澳台办公室)和中国极地研究中心联合项目“北极地区大地构造编图”(QY201501-02)、国际海域资源调查与开发国家“十二五”重大项目基金(DY125-11-R-01, DY125-12-R-03)资助

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